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【美军评论文章】SDR软件无线电对C4ISR的冲击

2018-09-14

编者按:无线电通信作为一切作战单元不可或缺的基础设施,是战场信息传递的唯一方式。软件无线电技术的不断成熟和完善,对作战方式的影响越来越深远。C4ISR是美军现代化作战规划中的一个持续演进的宏大项目,自2015年来,美军及北约国家每年C4ISR的年采购量已逼近2500亿元人民币。在这个过程中,软件无线电也在深入改变着C4ISR。


不断演进的SDR技术正在对C4ISR的发展造成持续且明显的技术冲击,而最新(2016年)市场研究显示,2016年至2020年,全球(主要是美国及北约体系)C4ISR市场体量约为1330亿美元(9100亿人民币)左右。

Evolving software-defined radio (SDR) technology continues to have a significant technological impact on operations for C4ISR. According to recent research, the global C4ISR market is estimated to be worth approximately $133 billion by the year 2020.

推动SDR在国防装备市场发展的一个主要原因是其互操作性和综合化解决方案。国防装备市场遍布全球,包含了主要的西方国家,如美国和欧洲国家,并且在向诸如澳大利亚、巴西、印度尼西亚和土耳其等国蔓延。

One of the main factors driving SDR in the defense market is its interoperability and integrated solutions. The defense market is worldwide and includes major western markets like the United States and Europe, but also transitioning markets from countries such as Australia, Brazil, Indonesia and Turkey.

国防装备市场的挑战

Defense market challenges

战争环境的改变以及跨体系跨系统互操作的需求,正挑战着人们对国防装备市场的未来预期。军方目前使用的通信平台在信息接入和配置管理方面都很不友好,更不要说战场上笨重、硕大的硬件设备了!

编者注:从这一点可以猜测,经过2007年到本文撰写时2016年的列装,美军无线电装备的软件化普及率并不高,美军未来SDR装备的列装任重道远。)

The outlook for the international defense market is challenged by the changing warfare environment and the need to achieve interoperability between systems. The communications platforms currently used by military personnel are arduous to access and manage — not to mention the hardware being operated on the battlefield is both substantial and large.

为了实现战场通信,地面军官们不得不吭(keng)哧(chi)吭哧的去操作那些基于不同软件架构实现的设备。所以,高效通信和响应这样的诉求,就可以放到一边了。

(编者注:SCA规范发布到4.1版本时,于2018年初被美国国防部确定为“强制标准”,在此之前,通信平台的软件架构也是多种多样的。这与国内现状有些相似,有些通信设备厂家自己做一套SDR软件架构,所以是在可移植性、互操作性和开放性方面,都令人担忧。)

Officers on the ground have to labor to operate multiple devices utilizing different software architectures in order to communicate. As a result, effective communication and response can be compromised.

为了与不断改变的技术状态和使用要求保持一致,我们迫切需要一个增强型的综合化平台以提供优秀的互操作性和更多样化的通信手段。

In order to keep pace with the ever-changing military technology landscape and operation demands, an enhanced integrated platform is essential to provide highly interoperable and versatile communications.

这些平台还将有助于提升美国政府对全球事件采取快速响应的能力。

(编者注:快速响应能力和快速打击能力)

These platforms will also strengthen the response for governments to react swiftly to global events.

为什么SDR软件无线电是理想方案?

What makes software-defined radio the ideal solution?

现代战争与冷战时期的军事行动有天壤之别。在现代战争中,战场上的作战单元实时连接到指挥中心,采集并分享态势感知的数据。

Modern warfare is dramatically different to how the military operated during the Cold War. Military personnel on the battlefield now are connected to command centers in real time, collecting and sharing situational awareness data.

由于军方装备采购过程要耗费不少时间,因此目前对C4ISR系统本身进行综合化集成是行不通的。因为具有很高的自适应性、互操作性和安全性,SDR成为有效融入现役系统的理想解决方案。SDR平台不仅提升了性能如可靠性和可扩展性,还满足了系统灵活性、模块化和可移植性等核心需求。这使得SDR很容易将各种各样的通信设备集成到一个平台上并使之功能化,也就意味着未来的C4ISR是具备通用接口的、更小型化的综合系统。

编者注:将现有的C4ISR装备都替换成新体制的装备是不可行的,主要是这样做的话,时间周期太长,当然成本也昂贵。而SDR的优势时能够具备很好的自适应性和互操作性,能够实现和老装备的共存。这一优势主要是软件定义技术和通用射频技术带来的。)

As equipment purchasing processes in the military take time, building integrated C4ISR is unfeasible at present. In order to work with current systems effectively, SDR becomes the ideal solution as it is highly adaptable, interoperable and secure. This platform not only enables performance, reliability and scalability, but also core requirements such as flexibility, modularity and portability. This makes it easy to integrate multiple communications devices to function on a single platform. That means the future of C4ISR is smaller integrated systems with a common single interface.

有了SDR,我们就有可能采用具有政府权属的硬件和软件(编者注:美国军工供应链有一个特点,国防部会购买一些知识产权并授权原厂家进行制造,如果国防部和这个厂家之间的长期合作出现问题,会授权新的厂家进行制造。这样既解决了工业单位创新积极性的问题,又解决了供应链可控的问题。这里的government propertary指的就是这种情况。)进行系统集成,因为不同的解决方案可以有效地结合,从而能够提供协同化的端到端支持。随着预算的削减(编者注:美国2011年到2015年,军费增长率从18%递减至14%,而本文写于2016年),为了能够显著地帮助军方应对不断变化的风险(编者注:通常指作战需求风险、供应链风险、技术风险等),SDR也是费效比最高的解决方案。

With SDR, integration with government proprietary hardware and software is possible as solutions can be combined to provide synergistic end-to-end support. With budget cuts on the horizon, SDR also becomes the most cost-effective solution to provide military personnel on the frontline a conclusive advantage to manage evolving threats.

要么颠覆,要么在现有技术上升级,无论市场采用哪种方式去改变(C4ISR)通信系统,SDR都将是一个是十分重要的角色。

Whether the defense market chooses to change their communications systems with a major overhaul or by updating current technology, SDR has a significant role to affect either outcome.